Possible smuggling connection found during Rooswijk expedition
Recent discovery of silver coins with small holes deliberately made in them suggests they were sewn into the clothes of the crew to smuggle to the Dutch East Indies. Researchers have identified 22 of the Rooswijk’s crew from documents held in Amsterdam archives.
New research has revealed insights into the cargo and crew of the 18th-century Dutch East India Company (VOC) ship the Rooswijk, wrecked off the Kent coast.
The Rooswijk sank on the treacherous Goodwin Sands in January 1740 with all 237 crew lost. Thousands of vessels are known to have been wrecked in this area, dubbed ‘the great ship swallower’.
As a protected wreck site the Rooswijk's remains are owned by the Dutch Government, and managed by Historic England on behalf of the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport. The #Rooswijk1740 project is led by the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands, in collaboration with Historic England and contractor MSDS Marine.
Coins tell a tale of smuggling
The Rooswijk set off on its last journey, from the Netherlands to Batavia (modern-day Jakarta), with a lot of silver on board. All of it destined for trade in Asia. The precious metal was in high demand and was exchanged for asian spices and porcelain. The value of the Rooswijk’s known cargo is thought to have been more than 300,000 guilders. The cargo was in the form of silver ingots and ‘pieces of eight’ - Mexican reals – these were minted to a recognised standard weight, making them perfect for international trade.
However, archaeologists have uncovered lots of other, older coins at the wreck site including ducatons from the Republic and the Southern Netherlands (now Belgium) that were not part of the sanctioned cargo. This suggests that the Rooswijk’s passengers and crew were carrying extra silver to trade illegally.
Other coins found during the dives have small holes deliberately made in them, an indication that the crew sewed them into their clothes to smuggle to the Dutch East Indies. Concealing the coins in this way also kept them safely hidden from others on board. At this time we know that people were smuggling silver in their shoes and belts, such was the demand overseas.
Smuggling silver was officially prohibited by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) although it seems to have been common practice by many VOC personnel. It’s thought that by the time the Rooswijk went down, up to half of the money being transported on these ships was illegal. It has been estimated that a total of 20 to 40 million ducatons were illegally shipped to Asia in the 17th and 18th centuries. Martijn Manders, project leader of #Rooswijk1740, said:
The Rooswijk is special because it tells us about ordinary people of that time, but also about entrepreneurship, and (trade) relationships that ensured connections between cultures all over the world. We consider this to be shared cultural heritage. We therefore work closely with our counterpart Historic England. Our British colleagues are now mainly working on the conservation of the finds in Portsmouth, which is a very important part of the project. The finds help us tell the story of the people on board, we can relate specific personal objects to what they did in general: how they lived, what the circumstances were on board of the ship.
Duncan Wilson, Chief Executive of Historic England, said:
It’s extraordinary that after more than 270 years we now know the names of some of the people likely to have gone down with the Rooswijk. Sea-faring was a dangerous way of life and this really brings it home. The revelation that the Rooswijk was used to smuggle silver adds to our understanding of global trade at this time – we shall have to wait and see what else we might discover from this site in the coming months.
Archaeologists continue to investigate the wreck. They are finding more personal items alongside boxes and barrels in the galley behind the main mast. A ‘knee’ - a huge piece of angled wood used to support the deck – has been uncovered and will be investigated and recorded to illustrate the enormous size of the ship. The team is working towards where the stern of the ship should be with dives continuing until mid-August.
A nit comb, lead cheese container, pewter vessels and a chest full of thimbles are just some of the recoveries from the wreck site that will be conserved.
Material recovered from the wreck site is being taken ashore to a warehouse in Ramsgate where first-aid conservation will be carried out and the items fully recorded. From here finds will be taken to the Historic England research facility where work to assess, analyse and conserve them will take place. The finds will be returned to the Netherlands and in future some material may be made available for display in the UK.
The #Rooswijk1740 project contributes to Ramsgate's Heritage Action Zone initiative by providing a focus for community pride, a sense of shared history, and a sense of belonging.
In 2018, a virtual exhibition was made for the #Rooswijk1740 project, on behalf of the Cultural Heritage Agency of the Netherlands in collaboration with Huygens ING, IISG and Maritiem Portal.